Urinary tract infection - Wikipedia
Urinary tract infection - Wikipedia
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection ...

It is thought that the autoantibodies are generated by an immunologic reaction with bodily proteins, but the reasons that a specific set of bodily proteins should provoke an immune response that results in disease remain obscure. This small mark has two primary uses: to signify possession or omitted letters. Additionally, each is based upon positive scientific evidence: (1) we can measure and quantitate the size of the appendix; (2) we can measure and quantitate the amount of cellulose digestion occurring in the appendix; (3) we can observe and compare the relative positions, underlying structures, forms, and development of the organs in the gastrointestinal tracts of various organisms; and (4) we can determine primitive and derived characters by independent phylogenetic analysis. In herbivorous mammals, the caecum is essential for digestion of cellulose, a common plant molecule. From a nonevolutionary, typological perspective, the human appendix is homologous to the end of the physiologically important, large, cellulose-fermenting caeca of other mammals.

From investigative laparoscopies for suspected appendicitis, many people have been found who completely lack an appendix from birth, apparently without any physiological detriment ( In sum, an enormous amount of medical research has centered on the human appendix, but to date the specific function of the appendix, if any, is still unclear and controversial in human physiology ( The human appendix is notorious for the life-threatening complications it can cause. The reasons for this are multiple, but they largely stem from the simple fact that most physicians are not trained in evolutionary biology. In Old World monkeys the appendix is more recognizable, and it is well-developed in the anthropoid apes, which lack the large cellulose-fermenting caecum found in their ancestors and other primates ( , is a part of the caecum and is capable of contracting and dilating so that excessive wind does not rupture the caecum. To date, all experimental studies of the function of an appendix (other than routine human appendectomies) have been exclusively in rabbits and, to a lesser extent, rodents. This interpretation of it would stand even if it were found to have a certain use in the human body.

In fact, congenital absence of the appendix also appears to have no discernable effect. The word "caecum" actually means "blind" in Latin, reflecting the fact that the bottom of the caecum is a blind pouch (a dead-end or cul-de-sac). Similarly, a modern version of confusingly implies that the appendix cannot be both vestigial and specialized ( ). From an evolutionary perspective, the human appendix is a derivative of the end of the phylogenetically primitive herbivorous caecum found in our primate ancestors ( ). However, even though humans are herbivorous, the small human caecum does not house significant quantities of cellulase-excreting bacteria, and we cannot digest more than but a few grams of cellulose per day ( For each species, the stomach is shown at top, the small intestine at left, the caecum and associated appendix (if present) in magenta, and the large intestine at bottom right. Peyer's patches, appendix, and popliteal lymph node B lymphocytes: a comparative analysis of their membrane immunoglobulin components and plasma cell precursor potential. Today, a growing consensus of medical specialists holds that the most likely candidate for the function of the human appendix is as a part of the gastrointestinal immune system. Several reasonable arguments exist for suspecting that the appendix may have a function in immunity. Using this incorrect and nonevolutionary definition, it is logical to conclude that a structure is not vestigial if its function is discovered. As such the concept of vestigiality is not an "argument from ignorance.



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Whether you're looking to train a new puppy, find the best toy for your cat or set up a tropical aquarium, eHow has answers to all of your pet-related questions. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy guidelines for flying Health | HealthfullyThe stomach flu (or gastroenteritis) is a condition that typically causes inflammation of the stomach and small intestines. This sickness ...

Thus, the appendix is vestigial by both the evolutionary and non-evolutionary, typological definitions of vestigiality. Similar to the tonsils, the lymphatic tissue in the appendix is typically in a constant state of chronic inflammation, and it is generally difficult to tell the difference between pathological disease and the "normal" condition ( , p. Unlike the human appendix, the rabbit's appendix is extremely large, relative to the colon, and is the seat of extensive cellulose degradation due to a specialized microflora. The structure of the caecum is specialized to increase the efficiency of cellulose fermentation. From investigative laparoscopies for suspected appendicitis, many people have been found who completely lack an appendix from birth, apparently without any physiological detriment ( In sum, an enormous amount of medical research has centered on the human appendix, but to date the specific function of the appendix, if any, is still unclear and controversial in human physiology ( The human appendix is notorious for the life-threatening complications it can cause.

As already mentioned, the hominoid apes all bear a vermiform appendix, but many non-anthropoid primates also have structures that fit the above definition to varying degrees. The rabbit appendix, for instance, is very difficult to identify as separate from the rest of its voluminous caecum (see ). However, at least three possible observations would help negate the conclusion that the human appendix is vestigial, using either the evolutionary or the typological definitions of vestigiality: (1) if the human appendix were actually as large and developed as, say, the caecum of a prosimian or New World monkey; (2) if the human appendix contributed significantly to cellulose fermentation and contained a large amount of cellulose-digesting bacteria; (3) if we could demonstrate via phylogenetic or systematic methods that the apex of the cellulose-fermenting caecum in other primates and the vermiform appendix were not structurally homologous as side branches from the intestine. The human appendix has lost a major and previously essential function, namely cellulose digestion. In fact, 60% of appendicitis cases are due to lymphoid hyperplasia leading to occlusion of the interior of the appendix, indicating that the appendix is unusually prone to abnormal proliferation of its lymphoid tissue ( ).

In humans, the vermiform appendix is a small, finger-sized structure, found at the end of our small caecum and located near the beginning of the large intestine ( ). In evolutionary discussions the human vermiform appendix is one of the most commonly cited vestigial structures, and one of the most disputed. In fact, recent reevaluation of the anatomy of the primate caecum and appendix has highlighted the difficulties in determining exactly where the caecum ends and the appendix begins in different species ( ). The adjective "vermiform" literally means "worm-like" and reflects the narrow, elongated shape of this intestinal appendage. Whether the appendix has a function of some sort or not has no direct bearing on whether it is a vestige. Regardless of whether one accepts evolutionary theory or not, the human appendix is a rudiment of the caecum that is useless as a normal mammalian, cellulose-digesting caecum. As such the concept of vestigiality is not an "argument from ignorance. Even today, appendicitis fatalities are significant ( The small entrance to this dead-end pocket makes the appendix difficult to clean out and prone to physical blockage, which ultimately is the cause of appendicitis ( ). For instance, based upon this incorrect definition, incorrectly argue that an evolutionary vestige cannot be both a complex and a "regressive" structure (p.


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